Assessment is usually by means of an oral or written examination. In some cases there are intermediate exams during the course; other elements (participation in discussion, written or oral reports, comment of texts etc. ) are foreseen in specific course units.
The grading system for the course units consists of 30 possible points, plus 'lode' (cum laude) in case of excellence. Marks are given by the lecturer on the basis of performance as ascertained in a public examination by a board of at least two teachers. Main exam sessions are held in June/July; September; and January; students may resit exams.
An overall mark is given on occasion of the 'Final Exam', when a written research text is presented and discussed. The final overall mark is calculated on the results of the marks obtained in the single course units and the final exam, and is based on 110 possible points, with the possible further mention of honours ("lode" or cum laude).
Feb. 2017: call 2017/18 is opening